Ahrens P. HNO. 2012 Mar;60(3):206-215.
Gastroesophageal reflux diseases represent a diagnostic challenge, not least since no single diagnostic procedure has been able to establish a causal link between pathological reflux and chronic upper and lower airway diseases. By combining a variety of procedures which point to a link (multi-channel pH measurement, impedance measurement of the esophagus, video panendoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, and quantification of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages) and careful differential and exclusion diagnoses, reflux-related diseases can be diagnosed with sufficient precision. In addition to initially successful PPI therapy, surgical intervention (hemifundoplication) is the method of choice in children.