Yuksel E, Vaezi M. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2012 Sep;8(9):590–599.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can present with a wide variety of extraesophageal symptoms that are usually difficult to diagnose because of the absence of typical GERD symptoms (ie, regurgitation or heartburn). The diagnostic process is further complicated by the lack of a definitive test for identifying GERD as the cause of extraesophageal reflux symptoms. Due to the low predictive value of upper endoscopy and pH testing—as well as the lack of reliability of the symptom index and symptom association probability—extraesophageal reflux disease is still an area of investigation. This paper discusses recent developments in this field, with special emphasis on new diagnostic modalities and treatment options.